Encryption and Decryption in Java
using a private key and AES algorithm.

Secret

At times, it requires that data in transit/storage be kept secret from on lookers. There are plenty of available encryption mechanism in Java. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric key (i.e., same key for encryption/decryption) algorithm widely used to encrypt and decrypt data.

Hexadecimal String.

This post explains how to encrypt the hexadecimal string and to decrypt the encoded string.

Imports

import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;
import java.util.Base64;

import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import javax.crypto.SecretKey;
import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec;

import javax.xml.bind.DatatypeConverter;

import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

Initilization

// Objects required for encryption/decryption
private final SecretKey secretKey;
private final Logger logger;
private final Base64.Encoder encoder;
private final Base64.Decoder decoder;

// In constructor
this.secretKey = new SecretKeySpec(key.getBytes("UTF-8"), "AES");
this.logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass());
this.encoder = Base64.getUrlEncoder();
this.decoder = Base64.getUrlDecoder();
  • Here, key is argument to the constructor.
  • key should be of length 16 bytes (128 bits)
  • We can even generate this dynamically, if the need be.

Encryption

public String encrypt(String plainText) {
    try {

        // Get byte array which has to be encrypted.
        byte[] plainTextByte = toByteArray(plainText);

        // Encrypt the bytes using the secret key
        Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES");
        cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, secretKey);
        byte[] encryptedByte = cipher.doFinal(plainTextByte);

        // Use Base64 encoder to encode the byte array
        // into Base 64 representation. Requires Java 8.
        return encoder.encodeToString(encryptedByte);

    } catch (Exception e) {
        logger.error("Failed to encrypt", e);
    }

    return null;
}

This is how encryption works.

  • Use toByteArray to get byte array representation of hexadecimal string.
  • Encrypt the byte array, using the given key and produce the encrypted byte array.
  • Now, Encode the encrypted byte array using Base64.Encoder
  • So, original hexadecimal String is encrypted and encoded into base 64 format.
  • In short, hexadecimal string -> byte array -> encrypted byte array -> encoded to base64.

Decryption

    public String decrypt(String encrypted) {
        try {
            // Decode Base 64 String into bytes array.
            byte[] encryptedByte = decoder.decode(encrypted);

            //Do the decryption
            Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance("AES");
            cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, secretKey);
            byte[] decryptedByte = cipher.doFinal(encryptedByte);

            // Get hexadecimal string from the byte array.
            return toHexString(decryptedByte);

        } catch (Exception e) {
            logger.error("Failed to decrypt {}", encrypted, e);
        }
        return null;
    }
}

This is how decryption works.

  • Decode the Base 64 format and get the byte array of encrypted and encoded String.
  • Decrypt the byte array using the same key used for encryption.
  • Decrypted byte array represent the input byte array which was encrypted.
  • Now use the toHexString method to get back the original hexadecimal string.
  • In short, base64 encoded string -> encrypted byte array -> decrypted byte array -> original hexadecimal string.

Hexadecimal String to equivalent Binary and vice versa.

private byte[] toByteArray(String s) {
    return DatatypeConverter.parseHexBinary(s);
}

private String toHexString(byte[] array) {
    return DatatypeConverter.printHexBinary(array).toLowerCase();
}

Notes

  • Key length can be 128, 192 or 256 bits.
  • Key length of 128 bit can be directly used, whereas larger size has to be manually enabled.
  • Proper care has to be taken to keep the Secret key a secret, otherwise no point in encryption.
  • Here, Url Encoder in Base64 is used to create url safe string.
  • Java 8 is required for java.util.Base64. Alternatively use Apache Common Codec for Base64 encoding and decoding.
  • In case of plain text,
    • Encryption: we can directly get the plainTextByte using plainText.getBytes("UTF-8")
    • Decryption: we can directly construct the original string using new String(decryptedByte,"UTF-8")

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About Author

Sakthi Priyan H
Passionate Programmer

  • Sakthi Priyan is passionate about building high quality reliable software.
  • He has vast experience in full stack web since 2006.
  • He primarily codes in Java, Scala and Python.
  • He currently works in backend API services and big data technologies.